1 edition of Deep ocean mining of manganese nodules in the North Pacific found in the catalog.
Deep ocean mining of manganese nodules in the North Pacific
by Marine Ecosystems Analysis Program, Environmental Research Laboratories, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Boulder, Colo
Written in English
Bibliography: p. 120-133.
|Statement||E. Ozturgut [et al.] ; Deep Ocean Mining Environmental Study Project.|
|Series||N0AA technical memorandum ERL MESA -- 33.|
|Contributions||Ozturgut, E., DOMES Project.|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||vi, 133 p. :|
|Number of Pages||133|
Polymetallic nodules like this one, made of layers of iron and manganese, sit on the deep seabed. Deep-sea mining companies are hunting for these nodules to use in . 1. Introduction. Polymetallic (i.e., manganese) nodules occur over vast areas of the abyssal ocean floor (Ghosh & Mukhopadhyay, ) and are enriched in commercially valuable minerals such as manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and rare‐earth elements (Wegorzewski & Kuhn, ).Although nodules are estimated to have very slow growth rates of Cited by:
Manganese nodules on the bed of the Pacific Ocean Some delegations were already hostile, but Pardo was well prepared and passionate, even lyrical. The dark oceans, he said, “were the womb of. Nodules lie on the seabed sediment, often partly or completely buried. The total amount of manganese nodules on the sea floor is estimated to be over 3 trillion tons. The highest concentrations of manganese nodules have been found on vast abyssal plains in the deep ocean between 4, and 6, meters (13, ft).
Deep-sea manganese nodules, once an obscure scientific curios ity, have, in the brief span of two decades, become a potential mineral resource of major importance. Nodules that cover the sea floor of the tropical North Pacific may represent a vast ore de posit of manganese, nickel, cobalt, andBrand: Springer US. The object of Hughes’ desire appeared to be a mysterious and rare product of the ocean’s depths called manganese nodules. These rock concretions on the sea bottom are formed of concentric layers of iron and manganese hydroxides around a core and have been a subject of both debate and research since the s.
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Deep ocean mining of manganese nodules in the North Pacific: pre-mining environmental conditions and anticipated mining effects / E.
Ozturgut [and others]. Deep ocean mining of manganese nodules in the North Pacific: pre-mining environmental conditions and anticipated mining effects Paperback – January 1, : $ - Buy Deep ocean mining of manganese nodules in the North Pacific: pre-mining environmental conditions and anticipated mining effects book online at best prices in india on Read Deep ocean mining of manganese nodules in the North Pacific: pre-mining environmental conditions and anticipated mining effects book reviews & author details and more at Format: Paperback.
Deep-sea manganese nodules, once an obscure scientific curios ity, have, in the brief span of two decades, become a potential mineral resource of major importance. Nodules that cover the sea floor of the tropical North Pacific may represent a vast ore de posit of manganese, nickel, cobalt, and copper.
Inthe American mining engineer John L. Mero published the book “The Mineral Resources of the Sea” that brought the idea of manganese nodules as a resource to a broader scientific readership (Mero, ).
This book is often said to have marked the starting point for a multitude of deep-sea mining projects by: 2. Deep-ocean polymetallic nodules (also known as manganese nodules) are composed of iron and manganese oxides that accrete around a nucleus on the vast abyssal plains of the global ocean 1, 2, 3, 4, Author: James R.
Hein, Andrea Koschinsky, Thomas Kuhn. Currently in its exploration phase, deep-sea mining is targeting three different types of mineral resources on the deep-ocean floor: potato-sized manganese nodules, also known as polymetallic nodules, that carpet vast areas of abyssal plains; cobalt crusts, also known as ferromanganese crusts, that form on the slopes of some undersea mountains.
Ozturgut E, Anderson GD, Burns RE et al () Deep ocean mining of manganese nodules in the North Pacific: pre-mining environmental conditions and anticipated mining effects. NOÀA Techn Mem, ERL MESA Google ScholarCited by: 1. Manganese nodules discovered on the deep seafloor in January (Image credit: Thomas Walter) Manganese nodules have been found in every ocean, but are most common in the Pacific Ocean.
The. In the North Pacific Ocean, a remotely operated vehicle collects a metallic nodule with a deep-sea creature growing on top. Credit: GEOMAR (CC BY )Cited by: 2. In the late seventies, two of the international joint ventures succeeded in collecting several hundred-ton quantities of manganese nodules from the abyssal plains (18, feet, km + depth) of the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean.
Manganese nodules were dredged up from the ocean floor for the first time in by a British oceanographers, but for years the only interest in them had come from scientists curious about their. In the future, mining operations to extract marine minerals could take place in the deep sea.
Seafloor manganese nodules (SMnN) may be one target of deep-sea mining (DSM) beyond the limits of. The international forum for deep sea mining professionals.
As we move into an era of mining the deep-ocean floor, the world’s most remote environment, mining companies are working on overcoming the perceived challenges and developing island nations are watching with interest.
Manganese nodules (Fig. 1) and cobaltrich crust (Fig. 2) are resources of current interest. They are deposited over and beneath the ocean floor at an ,m depth.
Over the last 30 years, international consortia and government enterprises have invested in the exploration of deep-ocean hard minerals, manganese nodules in particular, and in. The mining, pumping and cleaning of the manganese nodules creates noise and vibrations, which disturb marine mammals such as dolphins, and could force them to flee from their natural area.
The sediment-laden water produced by the cleaning of manganese nodules is released into the sea from the ships. A sediment cloud is also created here. David Felix was KCONs chief exploration geologist and responsible for finding, mapping and resource assessment for manganese nodule deposits in the CCZ of the north equatorial Pacific.
Felix was responsible for compilation of material which lead to the successful licensing of area USA-4 under the U S Deep Sea Bed Hard Minerals Act. W hen published inJ. Mero's Mineral Resources of the Sea (1) painted a picture of an essentially limitless resource of more than 1 trillion metric tons of manganese nodules on the Pacific Cited by: Its harvest of metal-laden nodules is focused on a 4,kilometre swath of the Pacific Ocean that stretches from Hawaii to Mexico.
Deep in the Author: Amy O'kruk. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Deep sea mining is a mineral retrieval process that takes place on the ocean floor. Ocean mining sites are usually around large areas of polymetallic nodules or active and extinct hydrothermal vents at 1, to 3, metres (4, to 12, ft) below the ocean’s surface.
Deep-sea minerals such as polymetallic nodule, hydrothermal sulphides, and ferro-manganese crusts have for long attracted attention as an alternative source of metals to terrestrial deposits.The international forum for deep sea mining professionals.
As the international deep sea mining community move ever closer to mining the deep-ocean floor, industry stakeholders from developing island nations and ocean regulators, to commercial deep sea miners and subsea technology companies come together annually to meet at the world's premier Deep Sea Mining Summit.Of the several oceanic basins in the world, only four are viable for commercial deep-sea mining.
These basins are the Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the Equatorial North Pacific, the Peru Basin in the Southeast Pacific Ocean, the Penrhyn Basin to the east of Australia in the central South Pacific Ocean, and the Indian Ocean Nodule Field within the.